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H.R. 5376: To prohibit universal service support of commercial mobile service and commercial mobile data service through the Lifeline program

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H.R. 5376: To prohibit universal service support of commercial mobile service and commercial mobile data service through the Lifeline program was introduced on July 31, 2014 by Rep. Austin Scott.

Library: A Round-up of Reading

Space Law
An Asteroid Impact Will Someday Be Mistaken for an Act of War – Motherboard

NEOSSat Not Up to the Job; Government Report Blames Contractor – Commercial Space Blog

Space junk damages ISS US segment – Space Travel

The New Asia Space Dream – Space News

Editorial | Another Continuing Resolution Looms for NASA – Space News

ULA Asks Court To Dismiss SpaceX’s Block-buy Protest – Space News

Launius: Public-Private Partnerships Neither Panacea Nor Pandora's Box – Space Policy Online

NASA OIG: SOFIA: NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy – SpaceRef

Options for Assuring Domestic Space Access – USSCCST

Space Florida: Cape Risks Irrelevance – Space News

ULA joins call for dismissal of SpaceX suit – Space Politics

Ruling on sharper satellite images poses a privacy problem we can no longer ignore – Directions Magazine

Would a Liberal Government Reform the Canadian Space Program? – SpaceRef Canada

FAA environmental decision clears the way for SpaceX Texas spaceport – NewSpace Journal

Indian Space Budget Slated To Rise by 6.5 Percent – Space News

SpaceX Just Got Permission to Build a Spaceport in Texas – Motherboard

FAA Ruling Clears Path for SpaceX Launch site in Texas – Space News

Preparing for the 65th International Astronautical Congress; September 29th – October 3rd in Toronto, ON – Commercial Space Blog

Hidden Benefits of NRO “Spy” Technology Revealed in Hill Briefing – Space Policy Online

SpaceX moves a step closer to Air Force certification – NewSpace Journal

SpaceX One Step Closer to AF EELV Contracts & Gets FAA OK for Texas Launch Site – Space Policy Online

SpaceX Receives FAA Approval for Proposed Spaceport in Texas –

If Neil Armstrong stubbed his toe on a moon rock, who's liable? – Texas Lawyer

SpaceX Texas Spaceport One Step Closer – NASA Watch

Two Perspectives on U.S.-China Space Cooperation – Space News

EU Courts Support for Space Code of Conduct – Space News

Inspector General: NASA Needs New Plan if Congress Saves Airborne Observatory – Space News

Office of Commercial Space Transportation Notice of Approval on a Record of Decision for SpaceX Texas Launch Site, Cameron County, TX – SpaceRef

U.S. Air Force Seeks Bids for NRO Launch – Space News

On the legality of commercial asteroid mining and the purposefulness of related domestic legislation – Flight Laws

Posey, Kilmer Introduce ASTEROIDS Act To Grant Property Rights to Asteroid Resources – UPDATE – Space Policy Online

SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 Flights Deemed Successful = SpaceRef

DOD official defends EELV block buy, endorses launch competition – Space Politics

U.K. Government Green Lights Next Phase in Spaceport Development – NASA Watch

U.S. LAUNCH ENTERPRISE: Acquisition Best Practices Can Benefit Future Efforts. GAO-14-776T

House members press NASA for information on “epidemic of anomalies” with SpaceX missions – Space Politics

House Members Press NASA for Information on “Epidemic of Anomalies” with SpaceX Missions – Space News

UAE sets up agency to send first Arab mission to Mars by 2021 – Emirates 24/7

NASA, members of Congress make case for Europa mission – Space Politics

News from the Farnborough International Airshow | U.S. Government Officials Tout Benefit of Space Technology Export Reforms – Space News

US Too Dependent on Russian Rocket Engines, Experts Tell Lawmakers –

Senators Wants Quick RD-180 Replacement, SpaceX Certification – Space Policy Online

Aviation Law
TSA Travel Tips: Enhanced Security Measures for Electronic Devices at Certain Airports Overseas – TSA Blog

UAV Pilot Gets Warning From FAA For 'High-Altitude' Flight – ANN

FAA Proposes $295,750 Civil Penalty Against Skywest Airlines – ANN

Will they eventually ask us to fly naked? – Homeland Security Watch

NTSB denies reconsideration of flight TWA 800 investigation – Flight Laws

FAA Proposes to Increase its Authority Over Off-Airport Development – Aviation and Airport Development Law Blog

NOAA AIRCRAFT: Aging Fleet and Future Challenges Underscore the Need for a Capital Asset Plan. GAO-14-566

New Court Orders Signal More Drone Documents Are on the Way – Just Security

Federal, State Authorities Suspend Alaskan Helicopter Flights

The Air Navigation (Restriction of Flying) (Watnall) (Revocation) Regulations 2014

Amazon marches forward on drones, asks FAA for permission to test Prime Air – Salon

New York City Wants to Ban Drones That 'Endanger the Lives' of Its Citizens – Motherboard

FAA Continues Wildlife Strike Reporting Outreach for GA Airports – FAA

UK Parliament Transport Committee Publishes Offshore Helo Safety Report – ANN

NTSB Gives Partial Blame To FAA In 2011 Accident – ANN

Single European Sky or Single European Snail? EU Commission sends letters of formal notice to 18 States to accelerate implementation of common airspace management – Flight Laws

US, others complain to ICAO over North Korean missile launches – North Korea Tech

Geospatial Law
A Network of Recycled Phones Is Listening for Illegal Logging in the Rainforest – Motherboard

The differences between Google Earth and Google Maps – Google Earth Blog

Using Google Earth for crime analysis – Google Earth Blog

The Ex-Google Hacker Taking on the World’s Spy Agencies – Threat Level

Edward Snowden: Civil Liberties Violator – Lawfare

Republishing Litigation Brief Is Fair Use–White v. Westlaw – Technology & Marketing Law Blog

TPP Negotiations Go Further Underground with Unprecedented Secrecy Around Meetings in Canada – EFF





Net Neutrality and Transparency Principles Must Extend to Mobile Internet Access Too – EFF



Steptoe Cyberlaw Podcast, Episode #27: An Interview with David Heyman – Lawfare

Latest Snowden Leaks: FBI Targeted Muslim-American Lawyers – Threat Level

Rights That Are Being Forgotten: Google, the ECJ, and Free Expression – EFF

Programme for Media & Communications Law at SLS 2014 – Lex Ferenda

Glenn Greenwald on Why the Latest Snowden Leak Matters – Threat Level

Snowden and Civil Liberties: A Brief Follow-Up – Lawfare

Joint Statement by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence and the Department of Justice on Court-ordered Legal Surveillance of U.S. Persons – IC on the Record

On Glenn Greenwald’s Latest – Lawfare

CISPA's Privacy-Killing Successor Just Cleared Its First Hurdle – Motherboard

New Greenwald bombshell: NSA spied on 5 politically active Muslim-Americans – Salon

The UK Is Rushing Emergency Surveillance Laws to Keep Its Grip on Citizens' Data – Motherboard

Cyber Attacks – MIT Technology Review

First Amendment Precludes Disorderly Conduct Conviction for Ranting on Police Department Facebook Page – Technology and Marketing Law Blog

The Vocabulary of Cyber War – Public Intelligence

The People Suing Tor Don't Actually Know What Tor Is – Motherboard

“Loopholes for Circumventing the Constitution”, the NSA Statement, and Our Response – Freedom to Tinker

NSA Retaining “Useless” and Highly Personal Information of Ordinary Internet Users, Spying on Prominent American Muslims, CBP’s Internal Affairs Division Under Investigation Yet Again, and Much More: FRINFORMSUM 7/10/2014 – Unredacted

Ninth Circuit Doubles Down in Garcia v. Google – EFF

Document shows that it was not NSA, but FBI that monitored 5 Americans – Top Level COmmunications

British Government’s “Fast-Track” Surveillance Legislation Proposals – Just Security

New Commerce Report Explores the Value of Government Data – Directions Magazine

Barton Gellman on the Washington Post’s NSA Story – Lawfare

Open letter from UK legal academics on surveillance – Lex Ferenda

Legal Attacks Against Tor – Schneier on Security

Thune Bipartisan Bill to Permanently Block Taxes on Internet Access Overwhelmingly Passes House – USSCCST

Net Neutrality Regulation is Bad for Consumers and Probably Illegal – Tech Freedom

Steptoe Cyberlaw Podcast, Episode #28: An Interview with David Medine – Lawfare

INCOMING! Commission's Net Neutrality Comment Conundrum – CommLawBlog

Taking Bitcoin for Payment in California is Now Legal – IEEE Spectrum

Why All the Snowden Docs Should Be Public: An Interview with Cryptome – Motherboard

FAA to Consider Exemptions for Commercial UAS Movie and TV Production

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Source – FAA:

Press Release – FAA to Consider Exemptions for Commercial UAS Movie and TV Production
For Immediate Release
June 2, 2014
Contact: Les Dorr, Jr. or Alison Duquette
Phone: (202) 267-3883
Seven Companies Petition to Fly Unmanned Aircraft before Rulemaking is Complete
WASHINGTON –The U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Aviation Administration today announced that seven aerial photo and video production companies have asked for regulatory exemptions that would allow the film and television industry to use unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) with FAA approval for the first time.
If the exemption requests are granted, there could be tangible economic benefits as the agency begins to address the demand for commercial UAS operations. However, all the associated safety issues must be carefully considered to make sure any hazards are appropriately mitigated. The petitioner must still obtain operational approval from the FAA.
The Motion Picture Association of America facilitated the exemption requests on behalf of their membership. The firms that filed the petitions are all independent aerial cinematography professionals who collectively developed the exemption requests as a requirement to satisfy the safety and public interest concerns of the FAA, MPAA and the public at large.
The FAA has been working for several months to implement the provisions of Section 333 of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 and move forward with UAS integration before proposing a small UAS rule. Companies from three industries besides film production have approached the FAA and are also considering filing exemption requests. These industries include precision agriculture, power line and pipeline inspection, and oil and gas flare stack inspection.
The firms are asking the agency to grant exemptions from regulations that address general flight rules, pilot certificate requirements, manuals, maintenance and equipment mandates. They are also asking for relief from airworthiness certification requirements as allowed under Section 333. Under that section of the law, certain airworthiness requirements can be waived to let specific UAS fly safely in narrowly-defined, controlled, low-risk situations.
To receive the exemptions, the firms must show that their UAS operations will not adversely affect safety, or provide at least an equal level of safety to the rules from which they seek the exemption. They would also need to show why granting the exemption would be in the public interest.
Currently, Certificates of Waiver or Authorization are available to public entities that want to fly a UAS in civil airspace. Common uses today include law enforcement, firefighting, border patrol, disaster relief, search and rescue, military training, and other government operational missions. Commercial operations are authorized on a case-by-case basis. A commercial flight requires a certified aircraft, a licensed pilot and operating approval. The exemption process under Section 333 provides an additional avenue for commercial UAS operations.
You can view the film & TV production company petitions at
For more information on the FAA and UAS, go to

Event: Emerging Space Challenges

Source – Stimson Center:

Emerging Space Challenges
DATE Thursday, June 5, 2014
TIME 12:30 – 2:00 PM
LOCATION The Stimson Center 1111 19th Street, NW – 12th Floor Washington, D.C.
Space is becoming increasingly congested, contested, and competitive. The United States and the Soviet Union managed to cooperate as well as compete in space, as evident by collaborative efforts on the International Space Station. Despite testing anti-satellite weapons (ASATs), Moscow and Washington steered clear of confrontations in space. Now, future US-Russian space cooperation is in doubt, and China as well as the United States, have demonstrated ASAT capabilities. Will competition crowd out cooperation in the decade ahead?

Crowded OrbitsDrawing from his new book, Crowded Orbits: Conflict and Cooperation in Space (Columbia University Press, 2014), James Clay Moltz of the Naval Postgraduate School will examine this core issue of national and international security.

Scott Pace, Director of the Space Policy Institute at George Washington University, will serve as commentator. From 2005-2008, Scott served as the Associate Administrator for Program Analysis and Evaluation at NASA. His research interests include civil, commercial, and national security space policy, and the management of technical innovation.

A light lunch will be served.


James Clay Moltz, Professor, Naval Postgraduate School


Scott Pace, Director of the Space Policy Institute, George Washington University


Michael Krepon, Co-founder and Director of the Space Security Program, The Stimson Center


James Clay Moltz is a professor at the Naval Postgraduate School and holds a joint appointment in the Department of National Security Affairs and the Space Systems Academic Group. He is the author of The Politics of Space Security: Strategic Restraint and the Pursuit of National Interests and Asia’s Space Race: National Motivations, Regional Rivalries, and International Risks. He has appeared on National Public Radio’s “Science Friday” and has written on space topics for the Boston Globe, Nature, The New York Times, and the San Francisco Chronicle.

Scott Pace is the Director of the Space Policy Institute and a Professor of Practice in International Affairs at George Washington University’s Elliott School of International Affairs. His research interests include civil, commercial, and national security space policy, and the management of technical innovation. From 2005-2008, he served as the Associate Administrator for Program Analysis and Evaluation at NASA. Prior to NASA, Dr. Pace was the Assistant Director for Space and Aeronautics in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics from Harvey Mudd College in 1980; Masters degrees in Aeronautics & Astronautics and Technology & Policy from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1982; and a Doctorate in Policy Analysis from the RAND Graduate School in 1989.

Event: The 12th Reinventing Space Conference

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Source – RIspace:

Low cost space – from imagination to reality
Increasing demands to reduce spending have led to both new challenges and new opportunities in global space. We need to create dramatically lower cost, more responsive space systems and, of course, the launch systems needed to get them to space quickly and at far lower cost. So that business and government can take advantage of these rapidly evolving capabilities, an annual conference has been taking place since 2001, dedicated to this sector of better value, highly capable space systems.

The 12th Reinventing Space Conference will take place in London, UK between Tuesday 18 – Thursday 20 November 2014.

This three day meeting, including a conference and exhibition will be held within the stunning and historical location of the Royal Society.

For the benefits of attendees, rarely-seen artefacts from the Society’s incredible scientific heritage will be on display. These include items from the 1769 commission to send James Cook upon his first trip along with astronomer Charles Green and naturalist Daniel Solander to observe the transit of Venus.

Disasters Charter: Flood in north region of Brazil

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The Disaster Charter has been activated for a Flood in north region of Brazil:

Flood in north region of Brazil

Type of Event: Flood
Location of Event: North region of Brazil
Date of Charter Activation: 21 March 2014
Charter Requestor: Brazilian Disaster and Risk Management National Centre (CENAD)
Project Management:

Description of the Event
Heavy rain in the northern regions of Brazil have resulted in flooding along the Madeira River since February 2014. Thousands of people have been evacuated, and the flooding is gradually growing worse as the water levels rise.
The Madeira River is a tributary of the Amazon River and the flooding is located in Rondonia, a state in northern Brazil on the border with Bolivia (which also suffered flooding in February). Water levels have risen to record levels as of 19 March, reaching 19 metres above the normal level, and it is forecast that it will continue to rise until the end of the month.
A state of emergency was declared in February and 22,000 homes have been evacuated in the area. Many villages along the river were flooded and roads inundated by the flood waters. It is estimated that the affected areas stretch from Porto Velho to Mutum-Parana. No casualties have been reported and this has been attributed to the quick evacuation of the area.

NASA and French Space Agency Sign Agreement for Mars Mission

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Source – NASA:

February 10, 2014
RELEASE 14-046
NASA and French Space Agency Sign Agreement for Mars Mission

NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, right, and Jean-Yves Le Gall, president of the National Center of Space Studies of France (CNES), sign an implementing agreement for cooperation on a future NASA Mars lander called the Interior Exploration Using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport (InSight) mission on Monday, Feb. 10, 2014 at the Mandarin Hotel in Washington. The InSight mission currently is planned for launch in March 2016 and is scheduled to land on Mars six months later.
Image Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls
NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and Jean-Yves Le Gall, president of the National Center of Space Studies of France (CNES), signed an implementing agreement Monday for cooperation on a future NASA Mars lander called the Interior Exploration Using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport (InSight) mission.
“This new agreement strengthens the partnership between NASA and CNES in planetary science research, and builds on more than 20 years of cooperation with CNES on Mars exploration,” said Bolden. “The research generated by this collaborative mission will give our agencies more information about the early formation of Mars, which will help us understand more about how Earth evolved.”
The InSight mission currently is planned for launch in March 2016 and is scheduled to land on Mars six months later. Designed to study the planet’s deep interior, the lander seeks to understand the evolutionary formation of rocky planets, including Earth, by investigating Mars’ deep interior. InSight also will investigate the dynamics of Martian tectonic activity and meteorite impacts using CNES’s Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure instrument (SEIS).
SEIS will measure seismic waves travelling through the interior of Mars to determine its interior structure and composition, which will provide clues about the processes that shaped the planet during its earliest stages of formation.
Other partners working with CNES on the SEIS instrument include: the German Aerospace Center, United Kingdom Space Agency, Swiss Space Office (through the European Space Agency) and NASA.
InSight’s international science team is made up of researchers from Austria, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
For more information about SEIS, visit:
For more about InSight, visit:
For more information about NASA and planetary exploration, visit:

DIsasters Charter: Cyclone in La Réunion Island

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The Disasters Charter has been activated for a Cyclone in La Réunion Island:

Cyclone in La Réunion Island

Type of Event: Ocean Storm (Tropical Cyclone) and Flood
Location of Event: La Réunion
Date of Charter Activation: 01 January 2014
Charter Requestor: Direction Générale de la Sécurité Civile et de la Gestion des Crises (COGIC)
Project Management:

Description of the Event
Tropical Cyclone Bejisa is expected to make landfall on Réunion Island on 02 January 2014, bringing heavy rain and potential flooding. Wind speeds are forecast to be in excess of 190 km/h and the storm is forecast to be Category 2 or 3.

Bejisa is the first Tropical Cyclone of this year and it is expected to move either directly across Réunion or very close to it over 02 and 03 January. It is expected to cause some minimal property damage and bring a storm surge of 2-4 metres along the coastal areas.

The potential for flooding may result in evacuations of affected areas. Residents have been advised to take care due to potentially treacherous conditions.

Library: A Round-up of Reading

Space Law
Marcus Schladebach, Space Debris as a Legal Challenge, Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law (Vol. 17, 2013)

China hopes for international cooperation in development and uses of space resources – Lunar Networks

Who Owns the Moon? – Motherboard

Mango Pleads Guilty to a Job-Related Felony – Still Has a NASA Job – NASA Watch

House Extends Liability Protection for Commercial Space Launches – NASA Watch

The Harper Government Takes the Easy Path on Emerson Space Recommendations – SpaceRef

House passes indemnification extension bill – Space Politics

Wednesday’s Book Review: “Asia’s Space Race: National Motivations, Regional Rivalries, and International Risks” – Roger Lanius’s Blog

Hearing on Astrobiology – NASA Watch

NASA Plans Major Restructuring of NASA Advisory Council – Space Policy Online

House bill would free up termination liability funds for NASA programs – Space Politics

Aviation Law
Amazon’s delivery drone plan presents ‘a legal minefield’ – ABA Journal

Argument preview: Revisiting the balance between speech and reputation in the context of airline security – SCOTUS Blog

Shuster Introduces Bill To Ban In-Flight Cell Phone Calls – ANN

Iran Space Launch Program: Update – All Things Nuclear

Geospatial Law
ICYMI 5 Spatial Law and Policy Links From the Past Week – Spatial Law and Policy Blog

NSA Collecting Cellphone Location Data Worldwide – IEEE Spectrum

NSA Wrongly Says Warrantless Mobile-Phone Location Tracking Is Legal – Wired

Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (Vol. 15, 2012):

The Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg, The Tallinn Manual and International Cyber Security Law
Nicholas Tsagourias, The Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare: A Commentary on Chapter II—The Use of Force
Rain Liivoja & Tim McCormack, Law in the Virtual Battlespace: The Tallin Manual and the Jus in Bello

US Citizen Charged Under UAE Cybercrime Decree – EFF

Immediate Opportunities for Strengthening the Nation’s Cybersecurity – Lawfare

Export controls on surveillance and hacking tools? – The Volokh Conspiracy

U.S. and Allies Mull Export Licenses for Network Equipment and Software – The Export Law Blog


Treaty Limiting Weapons Exports Updated to Include Cyberweapons – IEEE Spectrum

Michael N. Schmitt, ‘Below the Threshold’ Cyber Operations: The Countermeasures Response Option and International Law, Virginia Journal of International Law (forthcoming)

Cyber Arms Proliferation and Arms Races – The Duck of Minerva

A House Divided: Federal Judges Take Conflicting Positions on Wiretap Act Claims Against Google in California’s Northern District – Privacy and Security Law Blog

European Parliament resolution of 10 December 2013 on EU Space Industrial Policy, releasing the Potential for Growth in the Space Sector (2013/2092(INI))

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Source – EU Parliament:

European Parliament resolution of 10 December 2013 on EU Space Industrial Policy, releasing the Potential for Growth in the Space Sector (2013/2092(INI))
The European Parliament ,

– having regard to Title XIX, Article 189 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, as it relates to research and technological development and space policy and with particular reference to the drawing-up of a European space policy in order to promote scientific and technical progress, industrial competitiveness and the implementation of European Union policies,

– having regard to the Commission communication of 28 February 2013 entitled ‘EU Space Industrial Policy’ (COM(2013)0108),

– having regard to the Commission communication of 3 March 2010 entitled ‘Europe 2020: a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth’ (COM(2010)2020),

– having regard to the Commission communication of 28 October 2010 entitled ‘An integrated industrial policy for the Globalisation Era – Putting Competitiveness and Sustainability at Centre Stage’ (COM(2010)0614),

– having regard to the Commission communication of 10 October 2012 entitled ‘A Stronger European Industry for Growth and Economic Recovery’ (COM(2012)0582),

– having regard to the Commission communication of 4 April 2011 entitled ‘Towards a space strategy for the European Union that benefits its citizens’ (COM(2011)0152),

– having regard to the Commission communication of 14 November 2012 entitled ‘Establishing appropriate relations between the EU and the ESA’ (COM(2012)0671),

– having regard to Council Decision 2004/578/EC of 29 April 2004 on the conclusion of the Framework Agreement between the European Community and the European Space Agency(1) ,

– having regard to the Council conclusions of 11 October 2010, 31 May 2011, 2 December 2011 and 30 May 2013,

– having regard to its resolution of 19 January 2012 on a space strategy for the European Union that benefits its citizens(2) ,

– having regard to Rule 48 of its Rules of Procedure,

– having regard to the report of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy and the opinion of the Committee on Foreign Affairs (A7-0338/2013),

A. whereas Article 189 TFEU gives the European Union an explicit role in drawing up a European space policy, in order to promote scientific and technical progress, industrial competitiveness and the implementation of its policies;

B. whereas, in view of increasing competition from newly emerging space-faring nations such as China and India, the political weight of the EU Member States in national terms may no longer suffice to address the challenges ahead in this sector;

C. whereas space policy is a key element in the Europe 2020 strategy;

D. whereas innumerable services which are used by members of the public in everyday life are directly or indirectly dependent on the space industry, such as television, high-speed internet, navigation systems or the Europe-wide automatic emergency call system eCall;

E. whereas the European space industry has a consolidated turnover of EUR 6,5 billion and employs over 34 500 highly skilled people, and whereas in this period of economic difficulty the importance of that industry as a sector with strong growth and innovation potential, and as a creator of jobs with high added value, should be brought to the fore;

F. whereas at present there is still not sufficient coordination of measures in the field of space policy between the EU, the Member States and the ESA, and whereas this has resulted in duplication of structures and prevented synergies from being sufficiently exploited; stresses that the introduction of a clear governance framework in the space sector would make for huge efficiency savings;

G. whereas the ESA, as an intergovernmental organisation, has no formal relationship with the European Parliament, so that there is no direct feedback to citizens such as otherwise exists in all fields of Union policy;

H. whereas the space industry is investment-intensive and has unusually long development cycles, so that consistency of planning plays a decisive role for it; whereas the visibility this provides will benefit greatly from the existence of a stable regulatory framework and a clear governance framework;

I. whereas the operation of a European launcher system could help to secure independent access to space;

J. whereas the EU is currently dependent on non-European military GNSS, and Galileo was conceived and developed and will remain under civilian control;

K. whereas commercial sales play a substantially more important role for the European space industry than for its main international competitors;

L. whereas satellite-based services play an important part in providing information for the growth sectors of the digital society and contribute to achieving the aims of the EU’s Digital Agenda;

M. whereas experts estimate that in ten years’ time the market for satellite navigation and earth observation services could have a volume of USD 300 billion, and whereas even today between 6 % and 7 % of GDP in the western EU Member States is dependent on satellite navigation;

N. whereas, because of growing demand for wireless communication services and the physical properties of wave propagation and the associated shortage of radio frequencies, the international coordination of spectrum use is increasingly important;

Basing space policy on European priorities

1. Welcomes the Commission communication on EU Space Industrial Policy; considers that the Commission should concentrate on a limited number of space industrial policy measures as referred to in that communication, in order to genuinely exploit the potential for growth in the space industry;

2. Stresses that all the actors involved in the governance of future EU space policies, including the Commission, the European GNSS Agency, the ESA, the national agencies and the specialised agencies such as EUMETSAT, must be interlinked and must operate on a long-term basis;

3. Considers that the National Agencies could come up with concrete proposals in this direction so that the Commission could streamline the input coming from the Member States and define an EU vision;

4. Stresses that the Commission must, as soon as possible, give us a clear roadmap for GMES/Copernicus and for the development and deployment of the various Satellite Sentinels, as well as the legal and operational framework proposed for this complex system;

5. Endorses the Commission’s intention of taking steps towards the establishment of a coherent EU space regulatory framework; advocates establishing a genuine EU internal market for space products and space-based services; considers it important that policy should be formulated and developed without its implementation adversely affecting or distorting commercial market conditions; observes that competitive neutrality and transparency are both cornerstones of the development of European space policy;

6. Observes that the Commission does not yet have a horizontal approach with a view to mainstreaming space policy and its objectives into the various fields of policy of the Union; calls on the Commission to do so in future by taking space policy into account in such fields as telecommunications, transport, environment, agriculture, safety or culture;

7. Welcomes the statement by the Commission that space-based telecommunications, navigation and earth observation provide the EU with strategically important knowledge underpinning its external relations in the field of development assistance and humanitarian aid;

8. Calls on the Commission to assign priority to the following aspects: institutional issues; Galileo and Copernicus; the space industry as a generator of growth and employment; impact assessment of space-related activities; independent access to space; the role of R&D; satellite communication; space surveillance and tracking; and space debris;

9. Supports the point made by the Commission that many components of space systems are dual-use or of a military nature and are hence subject to Directive 2009/43/EC of 6 May 2009 simplifying terms and conditions of transfers of defence-related products within the Community(3) , as amended by Directive 2012/47/EU of 14 December 2012 as regards the list of defence-related products, Council Regulation (EC) No 428/2009 of 5 May 2009 setting up a Community regime for the control of exports, transfer, brokering and transit of dual-use items(4) , or the Common Position on arms exports; welcomes the proposal made in the communication to submit a formal report to Parliament on the dual-use export control system before the end of 2013; calls on the Commission, the Member States and the EU Council Working Party on Conventional Arms Exports (COARM) to clarify what regulatory framework should apply to each category of goods and technology;

Institutional affairs

10. Recognises the successes which the ESA has achieved for Europe in the field of space missions in recent decades, and encourages non-ESA Member States to consider accession and increased cooperation; observes, however, that, in the long term, ways of achieving greater operational efficiency and political coordination and responsibility can be achieved by bringing the ESA and the EU closer together in their cooperation, inter alia so as to avoid duplication of activities and overlaps; calls on the Commission to investigate very carefully whether the ESA could, for example, in future be linked to the Union’s governance structures as an inter-state organisation as long as it is not felt to be appropriate to convert the ESA into a European agency;

11. Considers that, in the meantime, the EU, in very close cooperation with the ESA, should coordinate the space policies and programmes of the Member States more than hitherto in order to adopt a genuine European approach, while ensuring that the interests of ESA and its member states are respected; observes that it is only by means of a European approach that the space industry can be given the opportunity to become, and also remain, competitive;

12. Calls on the Commission, the Member States and the ESA to establish a form of coordination group whose members should coordinate strategies and measures in the field of space at regular meetings in order to avoid duplication of structures and develop a common approach to international issues and forums;

13. Notes that any increase in the use of space assets by the military must not reduce or limit civilian use and possible future civilian applications; calls on the Member States and the VP/HR to initiate a review of the now outdated 1967 Outer Space Treaty, or else to create a new regulatory framework that takes account of technological progress since the 1960s;

Galileo and Copernicus (GMES)

14. Stresses that the completion of Galileo and the continuation of Copernicus should be assigned the highest priority as the flagships of European space policy, so that the first Galileo services can in practice be opened to the public in 2014;

15. Underlines the fact that EGNOS is the first operational European GNSS programme; calls on the Commission and the Member States to promote and implement the use of EGNOS in various areas, such as transport;

16. Deplores the fact that, in the past, delays have occurred in establishing the European satellite navigation programme Galileo; welcomes the fact that four satellites have now been launched into earth orbit; stresses that the advantages and utility of Galileo in particular and of a European space industry in general should be communicated to society more effectively, and calls on the Commission, in conjunction with future launches of Galileo satellites, to organise high-profile public events in EU capitals to promote Galileo and its potential applications;

17. Stresses that the EU needs to inform people, attract future engineers, spread information about EU satellite navigation and propose a set of incentives for all users in order to use Galileo and EGNOS enabled technologies;

18. Is convinced that the aim of Full Operating Capacity (FOC), based on a constellation of 27 satellites plus a suitable number of spare satellites and adequate ground infrastructure, is a prerequisite in order to realise the added value of Galileo, in terms in particular of high precision and uninterrupted service and thus reap numerous economic and societal benefits;

19. Regrets that not all of the EU is currently covered by the EGNOS system, and calls for that system to be extended to southern, eastern and south-eastern Europe, hence enabling its use throughout Europe;

20. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to inform Parliament about plans to use the Copernicus programme and the public-regulated service of the Galileo programme in support of CSDP missions and operations;

The role of the space industry in driving growth and creating employment

21. Observes that SMEs (not only SMEs, but nonetheless SMEs in particular) require a kind of pump-priming funding from the public sector to give them sufficient funds for long-term investment in R&D; is convinced that public funding and the existence of public customers for products and services of the space industry can drive innovation and thus generate growth and create jobs;

22. Reiterates that the EU must not miss the opportunity to develop the satellite navigation downstream market, and underlines the importance of an action plan for the European GNSS Agency in order to expand the GNSS market, which will be crucial for the future of the EU economy;

23. Recalls that new applications of satellite navigation can increase the safety, efficiency and reliability in areas including the aviation, maritime, road and agriculture sectors, road safety, fee collection, traffic and parking management, fleet management, emergency calls, goods tracking and tracing, online booking, safety of shipping, digital tachographs, animal transport, and sustainable land;

24. Notes the fact mentioned in the communication that 60 % of electronics on board European satellites are currently imported from the US; calls for an initiative on how to protect sensitive or personal data in this context, and for use of the current public procurement process to ensure wherever possible that the purchase of space infrastructure from Member States is used as a further driver of growth in the sector;

25. Urges the Commission, the ESA, the EDA and the Member States to identify critical technologies in the context of the joint European non-dependence process and to develop alternatives which are less dependent on third countries; recalls the risk that the US might, in the event of disagreement, close down or block European space infrastructure;

26. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to create incentives for European industry to develop space components at European level in order to reduce dependence on imports from third countries;

27. Observes that undertakings from outside the space industry can benefit from products derived from space research; calls on all parties concerned, therefore, to develop exchanges between actors in the space and non-space industries and to work in partnership to develop technologies which can lead to pioneering innovations for the benefit of society; stresses the value of better publicising the tangible benefits that the space industry can bring to the daily lives of Europeans;

28. Stresses that the space-based services and robotics industries, in particular, create numerous market opportunities, above all for SMEs;

29. Stresses that autonomous and intelligent robotic systems are key technologies for the further exploration of space; points in this context to the efficient use of European funding from Horizon 2020, particularly for operations close to the market;

30. Stresses that a suitable pool of highly skilled employees is key to a competitive European space industry; calls therefore on all parties concerned to step up cooperation between universities and industry and to encourage young talent, in particular female talent, to commit to this sector (e.g. by establishing national graduate programmes and training schemes as well as competitions for European and non-European researchers); observes furthermore that the acquisition of talent from third countries (including by attracting back European talent) is indispensable;

Access to space

31. Stresses the importance of access to space for all Member States and of commercial sales for the European space industry; observes at the same time that access to institutional markets in third countries remains partially closed to the European industry; stresses the importance of equal initial conditions for the European industry at international level; calls on the Commission, therefore, to promote reciprocity and to ensure equal opportunities and fair competitive conditions in the context of trade agreements (e.g. TTIP);

32. Stresses the importance of developing and operating European launchers for independent access to space; calls, therefore, on the Commission and the Member States, jointly with the ESA, to maintain and expand a European launcher system and a rocket-launching service in the long term;

33. Considers that the European space industry should make use of existing European space infrastructure, part of which was paid for using European public funds;

The role of research and development

34. Welcomes, additionally, the fact that under the new Framework Programme for Research (Horizon 2020) the sum of EUR 1,5 billion is to be invested in space research and innovation; calls on the Commission, furthermore, in the context of Horizon 2020, to make part of the budget available for R&D relating to applications of satellite communication;

35. Considers that, particularly in the field of research, greater coordination between the EU, the ESA and the Member States is needed; calls on all three parties to develop a joint ‘research roadmap’ for the period ending in 2020, and to define priorities and objectives for space policy which should be attained jointly, in order to provide consistency of planning for the actors involved, particularly in industry; stresses the importance of research cooperation with third countries;

36. Stresses that the development of GNSS applications and services is essential in order to ensure that the infrastructure investment which Galileo represents is fully exploited and that the Galileo system is developed to its full capacity; stresses the need to ensure that the appropriate funding is provided for research and development in respect of GNSS and for its implementation; regrets the fact that the reduction in the funding allocated to research and innovation for applications based on EGNOS and Galileo is considerably delaying technological progress and the growth of industrial capacity, as well as environmentally effective implementation, in the EU, and therefore urges the Commission to introduce arrangements enabling SMEs to access funding more easily;

37. Observes that the development of innovative applications in Europe is hampered by various obstacles; reminds the Commission, therefore, that there is an untapped market for the commercial exploitation of space-based data generated by earth observation and satellite programmes; calls on the Commission to conduct a study to identify these obstacles (such as: liability for damage caused by space objects/debris; uncertainty regarding the availability of services; reservations with regard to security and data protection; inadequate awareness of potential; and lack of interoperability), and to put forward possible proposals concerning ways of opening up such markets;

Satellite communication

38. Stresses that satellite communication plays an important role within the European space industry, as orders from this sector provide continuous uses for spacecraft and launchers and thus contribute to the objective of independent access to space for the EU; draws attention, in this context, to the role of independent payload capacity which becomes available when launching commercial satellites (for ‘hosted payloads’) which can be used to try out new products and technologies in space and thus helps to reduce both the costs and the time required to be able to offer new services;

39. Stresses that satellite communication is an efficient way of providing multimedia services, also to those in industry and society whom it has hitherto been impossible to serve by means of terrestrial technologies;

40. Stresses that satellite networks help to meet the EU Digital Agenda targets with a view to achieving total broadband internet coverage in the EU, particularly in remote areas; calls on the Commission, therefore, to ensure that, with reference to technological neutrality, the satellite internet is appropriately taken into account in the technology mix to be used to expand broadband, for example in the EU’s cohesion policy;

41. Observes that satellite communication is taking on an increasingly important logistical function in crises such as natural disasters or in maintaining internal security, as its data and communication links are vital in situations in which no terrestrial infrastructure exists or it has been destroyed;

42. Calls on the Commission, therefore, to analyse the current availability of, and future need for, radio frequencies for satellite communication, and to ensure at the next ITU World Radio Communications Conference that the EU’s interests and those of the satellite communication industry in the field of global and regional spectrum allocation are defended appropriately;

43. Considers that the potential for innovation in the field of satellite communication has not by any means been exhausted; draws attention to the potential of the latest technologies, such as Laser Communication Terminals (LCT) or High Throughput Satellites (HTS), to meet the need for ever-increasing exchanges of data at ever-higher data rates;

44. Stresses that Europe can only maintain its technological advance in satellite communication if research efforts in this field are continued at European level;

Space debris

45. Stresses that space-based infrastructure constitutes the backbone of many services used by industry and society in everyday life; observes that loss of access to this infrastructure, for example due to collisions between satellites and other space objects or debris, could impair the safety of economic actors and members of the public;

46. Observes that space debris is a growing problem; calls on the Commission and the Member States to work towards global governance for space; calls on the Commission and the Member States, at the same time, to encourage third countries to sign the Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities drawn up by the EU through all diplomatic channels;

47. Calls on the Commission to support the establishment at European level, as quickly as possible, of the programme proposed at the beginning of this year to support observation and tracking of objects in space, in order to ensure greater independence from the institutions in the US that issue warnings of collisions;

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48. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.